And So To Vauxhall – Music and Culture at the Celebrated Gardens

And So To Vauxhall – Music and Culture at the Celebrated Gardens

a lecture by Peter Medhurst

This fascinating lecture was further enhanced by Peter’s piano playing and singing and though he apologised for a croaky voice, we heard no evidence of it and found the whole presentation totally delightful.

Many of us knew little about the story of the Vauxhall Gardens. Peter began by explaining that during the early 17th century there were over 600 pleasure gardens in London and they were known as the nursery of English song.

Peter showed us on John Roque’s map of London from 1745 the position of the Vauxhall Gardens bordering the Thames in the South East.

John Tyers purchased the gardens in 1732 and spent four years transforming them. He nearly failed in the first year  as he organised a Redotto al Fresca at which he displayed 5 large paintings illustrating the evil consequences  of self indulgence and drink. This clearly did not go down well with the visitors!

Entry was through a small turnstile which can be seen in the painting above. It cost 1/-, and was fixed for 60 years. Leopold Mozart commented that the entry cost was not high but once inside you would spend much more money on food and activities.

In 1751 Canaletto was in London and painted the Grand Walk in Vauxhall gardens, though it is not an accurate representation, it shows the grand tree lined walks.

After 3 years Tyers realised that music would play an important role in the gardens. Handel said that he would play an organ concerto and organs became very popular so Tyler built and organ house which can be seen in the painting below, behind the open  areas  where  the orchestras  played.  This  area for  the orchestras  was  very small.

There was a dome structure as you entered – for when  it rained.

There were two equally popular gardens – Ranelagh Gardens  in Chelsea and the one in Vauxhall. The Vauxhall gardens became more popular for evening activities and would open about 5pm and remain open until the last guest left in the early hours of the following morning. The season for the gardens ran from April until September.

In 1751 supper boxes were built but the food was variable and expensive. This painting by Rowlinson in 1854 shows how the seating in the boxes was arranged so all the diners could look out from the boxes. 

Another of the attractions were the Classical Ruins where everything was an illusion designed to titilate and please as shown in the painting by Rooker after Canaletto – the ‘ruins’ were painted canvas stretched over frames.

In 1737 a statue of Handel by Roubiliac was erected by the supper tables and Tyers used this as a great advertisement. It was a very interesting statue as it showed Handel in a very informal pose and was the first stature to be created of a famous person still living.

Tyers began to display paintings which he had purchased specifically for the Vauxhall Gardens.

In 1749 Handel’s Royal Firework music was to be performed in Green Park but it was rehearsed in Vauxhall Gardens and in return Tyers loaned his lamps. There were 12,000 visitors to this event.

Though the entrance fee went up to 2/6  this did not deter the people and the queues to enter were incredibly long.

The Prince of Wales became a patron of the gardens and the prince of Wales Pavilion was built.

From 1745 singers were constantly employed at the gardens and all performing musicians were always British.

After his death his family continued to develop it adding fireworks and fire balloons to the festivities.However  by 1840 the owners were bankrupt and the gardens closed. The moving of Crystal Palace in 1854 was the final nail in the coffin for Vauxhall gardens and in 1859 there were several farewell events.

We had been taken on a fascinating visit by Peter giving us an insight into the entertainment of the period.



Dame Zaha Hadid

Dame Zaha Hadid. A lecture by Anthea Streeter

Anthea began her fascinating and informative  lecture saying that Zaha Hadid died suddenly in 2016 when she was at her peak – having 36 ongoing projects in 21 countries ! An incredible success story. She had been awarded a gold medal from the RIBA – awarded to people who have made a major influence on architecture. One of the distinguishing features of her designs was her  use of diagonals rather than the conventional right angles and this made architecture more exciting.

She was born in Baghdad to a wealthy family. At school she excelled at Maths and her family sent her to a boarding school in England. From there she studied maths at the American University of Beirut and then in 1972 she went to the Architectural Association School of Architecture, where she studied under Rem Koolhaus who found her an inspirational student. Her 4th. year project was a painting of a hotel in the form of a bridge,  inspired by the Russian suprematist artist, Kazimir Malevich. During the 1920s Malevich had made some white structures which he called Architecton which was a source of inspiration to Zaha.

Zaha came top of all the students passing out from the School of Architecture in 1977 with this painting. The  hotel was designed to be on Hungerford Bridge and the links with Malevich’s Architecton are clear.


She was given a lectureship at the School of Architecture and in 1982 she achieved her first milestone by winning her first competition with a design for the Hong Kong Leisure Club on The Peak in Hong Kong (although it was never built)

The use of diagonals in this design are clear to see.

In the early 1980s Zaha set up her own practice and in 1990 she received her first commission – to build a Fire Station for the Vitra Furniture Company in Weil am Rhein in Germany.

It was one of her first designs to be built but when it was completed in 1993 there was no longer a need for a Fire Station so a concrete wall was added where the Fire Engines would have been .

In 1994 Zaha designed the Opera House in Cardiff, but it was never built as the government decided not to put forward the money.

In 1997 Zaha won a competition to design a Centre for Contemporary Art in Cincinnati.

For this design Zaha won the Pritzer prize for Architecture.

In 1998 Zaha won a competition to design a Contemporary Art Museum in Rome which became known as the Maxxi.

Where the interior is as breathtaking as the exterior. The theme throughout is one of a sense of movement and flow.


Zaha’s design for a new ski jump at Innsbruck was rather controversial as it stood out in strong contrast to the surrounding mountains. It was designed not only as a ski jump but also a cafe with a 360 degree view of the mountains. The design gives a sense of movement and speed.

In 2000 Zaha designed another building in Germany – the Phaeno Science Centre in Wolfsburg. Zaha wanted the space underneath to be full of activity and each of the cone shaped pillars that support the building contains a shop, a cafe or an entrance.

Then in 2003 -2010 her design for the Gangzhou opera House was built. Throughout  the whole design there were no right angles.It was comprised of two buildings – one contained the theatre whilst the other housed the restaurants and shops.

and again the interior was as spectacular as the exterior.

Zaha was commissioned again by Innsbruck to build 4 stations on the Nordpark Cable Railway – 2004-2007 The design  shows how Zaha’s buildings often had just minimal contact with the ground.

In 2001 Zaha designed the Maggie Centre at the Victoria Hospital in Fife. The hospital was for cancer sufferers and Zaha was keen to ensure that her design instilled calm and peace.

Another design by Zaha in Scotland was the Riverside Muse in Glasgow – with its non-uniform peaks and troughs.

In 2006 Zaha was commisioned to design the Aquatics centre for the London Olympics. 

The building looked like a wave but extra seating had to be added for the Olympics but these were removed once the Olympics had finished.

In 2008 Zaha deigned a building for the University of Economics and Business in Vienna, with  walls  sloping  at  35  degrees

The wonderful interior was beautifully lit and the acoustics were very clever which meant that inside the building it was incredibly quiet.

Probably Zaha’s most famous famous building was the Heydar Allayer Centre in Baku in Azerbaijan – designed in 2007. It was called her Queen of Curves. The people of Azerbaijan  were so proud of it and kept it beautifully.

Part of the design incorporated wedges of landscaping . There was also a very unusual staircase with slithers of light, probably inspired by the work of Malevich.

Another amazing interior was designed by Zaha for the Hotel Puerta in Madrid. Anthea concluded her lecture showing us images of the Zaha Hadid Gallery in London

and her apartment in Miami.

Anthea’s lecture gave us a very comprehensible insight into the work of an amazing architect. The lecture was made the more instructive by Anthea shoving us pictures of the buildings from many angles.

Zaha Hadid, as Anthea concluded, died suddenly at the peak of her career and was a great loss to architecture around the world. I am sure many of us will look further into Zaha Hadid’s work and if possible visit some of the buildings

Leonardo’s Women

Leonardo’s Women – A Lecture by Shirley Smith

Shirley began her fascinating lecture by reminding us that this year is the 500th anniversary of Leonardo’s death.

Self Portrait

He was born on April 15th 1452 in Vinci. Soon after his birth, his family moved to Florence, where the power was in the hands of Medici – a big supporter and promoter of Art. By the time he was 14 he was working in the workshop of Andrea de Verachio. At this time he lived in a house with several other young men and this led to suggestions that he was homosexual, though most of his portraits were of women.

Shirley then began to introduce us to Leonardo’s women.One of his earliest portraits was his portrait of Ginevre da Banci.

This painting shows how Leonardo was always wanting to create new approaches and in this portrait he has turned her to face the viewer, whereas up to now portraits were always in profile. On the back of this portrait he wrote ‘ She adorned her virtue with beauty.’ Another new approach was to use oil, rather than tempura, which dries slowly and therefore allows the artist to build up layer upon layer .

Leonardo made the surprising decision to move to Milan which was not a city renowned for its art. Ludovico Sforza who was Duke of Milan at the time was a warlord and Leonardo’s letter to Sforza contained drawings of military vehicles, which clearly would have pleased him.

In 1489 Leonardo painted one of his most famous portraits – ‘Lady with Ermine’.

The lady was Cecelia Gallerani – the mistress of Sforza. Her hairstyle with the knot was very Milanese in style. It is also interesting to see the position he painted her in – with her head facing one way and her body facing the other. This gives a sense of vitality to the portrait. Though at this time Leonardo was still not painting the portraits with the ladies facing forward. It was an interesting choice to paint the lady with an ermine as they were renowned for their cleanliness. The fact that he painted the hands of the ladies was also quite a new idea.. On her face there is just a hint of a smile.

‘La Belle Perroniere ‘ (1490) was another portrait in which the subjects head faced one way whilst the body faced another..

Though Leonardo is now painting the lady looking more forward towards the viewer, but he kept her virtue by painting a ledge in front of her. With this portrait Leonardo had produced the most startling painting of a woman.

In 1499 after Leonardo had been in Milan for 18 years it was seized by Louis X11 of France and Ludoviquo was captured. Leonardo went back to Florence, and in 1503 he painted his most famous portrait ‘The Mona Lisa’ .

She is simply dressed and her hair is not braided. Vassari said of the smile that Leonardo had employed jesters to keep her amused. As with all his paintings it was painted on wood not canvas. Another innovation in this portrait was that Leonardo no longer used a dark background but painted a landscape.

His painting in 1480 ‘Madonna of the Carnation’ shows the brilliant way Leonardo has used oil to give texture to the clothing. The landscape also shows perspective disappearing.

In the Vigin and Child, the Madonna points to John and has her arm on him whilst Jesus is blessing him.

In the preliminary sketches there is a real glow to Her face and the palm of Her hand is in shadow. He has produced a really revolutionary painting with no wings, no halos and no thrones.. There is an infusion of human form and nature. The painting in the Louvre is the original whilst the one in the National Gallery is quite different. It is thought that the latter has been painted by his students.

The painting of the Virgin and Child with St. Anne in 1507 shows an extension of mother/child relations as it also has Mary’s mother Ann.

Again, in this painting the upper body of St. Anne is facing one way whilst the lower body faces a different way. The Virgin’s sad expression seems to show that she knows what will happen.

Leonardo only painted 4 portraits of women but they were all hugely influential. His greatest – The Mona Lisa has been copied many times and raised the question of the role of beauty.

Historic Gardens of the Italian Lakes

Historic Gardens of the Italian Lakes – lecture by Steven Desmond.

This very witty and entertaining lecture was just what we all needed in grey January.

N.B. Please note that the pictures used in this review are not the ones used by Steven in his lecture as they were from his private collection. I have found similar pictures to illustrate what he was talking to us about. 

Steven set the scene with a beautiful image of Lake Como in the early morning and explained that the climates in the two lakes he was going to talk about were not always as visitors expected. In the winter it was dry.cold and sunny; whilst the summer months could be very wet. He showed us how the light on the lake is often theatrical and mysterious as it is surrounded by mountains and therefore there is very little sun –  particularly so in the early morning.

We were then taken on a beautiful tour of the villas and gardens of Lakes Como and Magiore.

Belagio on Lake Como is home to Villa Melzi built in the early 1800s for Francesco Melzi who was Vice President of `Italy.  The villa was completed on 1810 and the gardens were created in terraces a few years later at the side of the house. They were in the English style and with an English statue even though at the time they were at war with England .


We then travelled to Villa del Bambinello which was built in the late 16th century. This magnificent villa is known for its picturesque gardens featuring flowers and trees which are the colours of the Italian flag: green, white and red, and it is only reached by boat.



Then on to the Villa D’Este which was built in 1580 and its gardens have been described as ‘appearing to hang in the air.’ From the gardens this path leads directly up to the villa.



The next villa – Villa Cicognaga the garden and the villa were built simultaneously to have continuity between outside and inside,

The garden has a  with a famously long double staircase (156 steps) lined with cypresses and rising to a grotto.

It also has a large rectangular sunken garden.


It is designed with a living garden (seen here on the right ) and a dead side (on the left) 


and the retaining wall is made from stalactites.


Steven then took us to Lake Maggiore and to the 17th Century Palazzo Borromeo surrounded by its magnificent terraced gardens. 


As you enter these gardens the baroque style in intended to knock you off your feet with the power it represents. There are statues representing the four seasons.


Our beautiful  journey ended at Villa San Remigio

The Villa owes its existence to two lovers determined to create their “dream garden”: the Marquis Silvio della Valle di Casanova, a Neapolitan poet and musician, and his wife, the Irish painter Sophia Browne. They were determined to renovate a ruined villa owned by Sophia’s grandfather.

Flights of steps, avenues and narrow passages,  lead to the garden of the Hours, recalling memories of happy times past, the garden of Joy, full of bright colours, the garden of Sadness, with no flowers and no water, the garden of Memories, symbolising nostalgia for the past, and the garden of Sighs, where the spirit merges with the surroundings. The garden of Scent has a lawn made of thyme and the shrubs are myrtle. The park also has many  fine statues.

The villa became a meeting point of the Arts.

Steven concluded his captivating lecture with a view of the lake at Sunset and for a while the greyness of January had been banished.

Singe Ye Yule -A Musical Portrait of a Medieval Christmas

Singe Ye Yule -A Musical Portrait of a Medieval Christmas –

A lecture by Sarah Deere-Jones.

Sarah began her lecture by giving us the sad information that unfortunately there were no original medieval instruments left therefore all the instruments she had brought with her were reproductions. Throughout her captivating lecture we were enthralled by Sarah playing to us on these medieval reproductions.

She then set the scene   for us – we were in woodland area along a muddy track ; we can hear the sound of chopping wood and ahead we can see a Manor House . It was  beautiful and peaceful time so the people are getting excited on hearing lively music. The peasants would spend much of their time chopping firewood  and caring for animals. They would come in from outside for soup at mid-day and at the end of the day they would just have a chunk of bread and cheese before going to bed. So it is no wonder that the 12 days of Christmas were so special.Everyone gathered evergreens for symbolism and to decorate their homes.Mistletoe had special fertility powers, whilst holly symbolised Christianity with white flowers , red berries and everlasting leaves.

The main part of the festivities was feasting. The main meal was served at 11 because of the need for light. This was essential for peasants and the wealthier you were the later you could eat. There was particular food for each course. Generous lords of the manor would invite one or two of the peasants to join the lords and ladies at the table.

Hunting was a very popular activity in the winter. After a day’s hunting they would return to the Manor for food and entertainment. The entertainment would be mummers and disguisers. The entertainers would often be out of work agricultural workers which is why they would disguise themselves.

One of the musical entertainments would be the Hurdy Gurdy – rather like a mechanical violin. Skating and kurling were also popular activities . At one time the Thames was frozen for 14 weeks. Skates were made from animal bones. Other games included backgammon, quoits, cards and chess.

The music played at these festivities would  include town musicians playing bagpipes very early in the morning whilst heralds would play loud brass instruments!!                                 Whilst the guests were eating, quieter music would be played by minstrels who would then accompany the dancing afterwards. Much of the rustic dancing originated from pagan dancing  i.e. in a circle. Slow dances like the Pavanne were introduced by the wealthy.

The earliest medieval carols started as elements in plays and not in churches.

we were sad as this lecture closed as we could have listened for much longer especially as now we could place the music and the instruments into context. We were most grateful to Sarah for setting the scene for us to begin to celebrate our Christmas.


Spencer Goes to War

Spencer Goes to War – a lecture by Carolyn Leder.

This lecture was well timed as it was just one  day after the 100th anniversary of the end of World War 1, so our minds were full of images of the war and  how the country was celebrating 100 years since the armistice. We were full of anticipation and expectation and we were not disappointed.

Carolyn began with a short introduction to Spencer’s early  life. He was born in Cookham in 1891 where his father was an organist and a rather bad painter and his mother was rather unconventional. He was educated at home by his sisters so he became quite a solitary individual. Both he and his brother received art lessons from a local artist and Stanley developed a passion for drawing. He then studied at the Slade from 1908-1912 under, amongst others,Henry Tonks.

Spencer was short and spoke rapidly, volubly and non-stop. He also wrote a lot.

In 1914 he painted this self portrait and interestingly he never painted himself in military uniform unlike some of his contemporaries .

Stanley’s attitude to war is remarkably different from other artists. He does not have the bitterness, nor does he glorify it. His aim is not to vilify but to redeem it, to make it whole. It is interesting how very accurate his paintings are, as in this painting of the travoys


In 1914 he was keen to enlist but his mother persuaded him to volunteer for ambulance duties because he was not robust. He was placed in Beaufort War Hospital in Bristol. He had been brought up at home and he found this placement very hard. He was bullied and shouted at. After 13 months at Beaufort he was transferred to overseas duty in Macedonia.

All of his war pictures were suffused with spiritual feeling. He spent a lot of time reading the Bible. Spencer’s writing was at times waspish and at others quite poetic. Interestingly he wrote a lot about the mules used in wartime. Paintings by his contemporaries were much more brutal and harsh as this one by Sargeant entitled ‘Gassed’

and Nevinson’s ‘La Patrie’


and Paul Nash’s ‘Menine Road1919 ‘

Although Spencer never painted himself in uniform other artists of the time did as Erst Kefner’s – ‘Self Portrait’ 

though much of this ‘self portrait’ was fiction as for one thing he didn’t have an arm amputated.

Max Beckman’s painting ‘ The Way Home’ from Hell shows just what Berlin was like after the war. 

Spencer painted this self portrait in 1923

Spencer was commissioned to decorate Burghclere Chapel in 1927 and he wrote of the chapel – ‘they are all portraits of me but not self portraits.’

In the ‘Resurrection of Soldiers’ is at the end of the chapel  Spencer imagined the Resurrection of the Soldiers taking place in Macedonia with soldiers rising out of their graves and handing in identical white crosses to a Christ figure towards the top of the wall. Spencer said that working on the Memorial Chapel has been a six-year process of remembrance and exorcism. “I had buried so many people and saw so many bodies that I felt death could not be the end of everything.”..

Caroline ended this fascinating lecture with the rather strange story of Spencer’s second marriage. In 1937 he divorced his first wife Carline and married Patricia Preece but he never lived with her and she continued to live with her girlfriend Hepworth. Seen below in the wedding photograph – with Spencer in the glasses. 

Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Legacy

Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Legacy

a lecture by Alan Read .

Alan opened his lecture by asking us what image came into our minds when we thought of Burne-Jones – knights in shining armour? ethereal beautiful ladies?or monsters ?  Images that could mesmerise and repel in the same instant. He explained that he wanted to challenge the idea that Burne-Jones was the last of the pre-Raphaelites but more the beginning of the modernists.

A Portrait of Burne-Jones painted by Alphonse -Legros in 1879

Burne-Jones was described as the most intellectual of artists – but neurotic and melancholic. His studios were full of ‘unpainted masterpieces’, sketches and drawings which he would return to in time and work on them as he felt inspired. Some would lay for years before he completed them.

He was born in Birmingham into the ‘Jones’ family. He added the Burne from his aunt in order to give himself status. His mother died when he was only six days old and throughout his life he carried the burden of the hurt that he did at his birth. He read voraciously at school and had some art classes. He planned to go into the church but when he went to Oxford he met William Morris and thus began a lifetime of friendship and support. They both travelled to France and whilst there they decided on their careers – art for Burne-Jones and architecture for Morris. Burne-Jones in fact,  left Oxford without taking a degree.

When he saw ‘The Maids of Elfen Mere’ by Rosetti (1855) he said it was the most beautiful painting he had seen and sought to meet Rosetti.

They all collaborated on these murals (1857-9) in the Oxford Union Debating Hall   based on La Morte d’Artur by Tennyson. Jane Burden was persuaded to sit for them. She later married William Morris, whilst Burne-Jones married Georgiana MacDonald– who became his rock and indulged him throughout his life. The two families were very good friends as shown in this photo from 1874.


Burne-Jones said he could never have lived by his pictures alone and it was his work in stained glass that allowed him to lead a comfortable life.

Burne-Jones’ stained glass window ‘ The Good Shepherd’ in Birmingham Cathedral.  (1884-9)

This drawing of ‘The Knights Farewell ‘ (1858) shows Burne-Jones’ fascination with medieval manuscripts , though it caused him to be unwell as he couldn’t cope with the smell of turps.

The Annunciation and the Adoration of the Magi 1861

This watercolour which looks almost like an oil painting met with considerable criticism and it seemed as if it was going back to old beliefs. As a result it was displayed high up in what was known as ‘the naughty boys corner.’

Sir Edward Burne-Jones – Le Chant d’Amour

Burne-Jones first painted this in black and white inside a piano and then returned to work on it much later. 

‘The Prioresses Tale painted by Burne-Jones is at the very heart of his association with medievalism.

and ‘The Lament’ (1865)

which has no real subject but was an excuse for a demonstration of harmony.

  Phyllis and Demophoon again was criticised for several reasons. Firstly because it showed a woman making an advance to a man and also that it showed private parts. Burne-Jones  was asked to cover up them up and Burne-Jones refused and as a result he resigned from the Royal Academy   and had what he described as the best seven years of his life !! The painting had also been criticised because it was ‘too green!’

The opening of the Grosvenor Gallery in New Bond Street  in 1877 was a big event and pictures were given ‘room to breathe’ compared to the space allocated to paintings in the Royal Academy. Burne- Jones had 7 or 8 paintings exhibited in the Grosvenor Gallery.

In ‘The Beguiling of Merlin’ which he painted in 1873, Burne-Jones compared it to his own position with his total infatuation with one of his models – Maria Zambaco

There is no story – it is a picture for arts’sake and thus is so different from the work of the pre-Raphaelites

George Howard – 9th earl of Carlisle commissioned a painting ‘The Last Sleep of Arthur ‘ but when, after he had worked on it for many years, the Earl saw how much it meant to Burne-Jones he gave it to him.  Burne-Jones worked on this painting for 17 years and in fact was working on it the day before he died.

Alan concluded this very interesting lecture with a quote from one of Burne-Jones’  critics describing him as ‘a mediocre artist indulging girlish dreams.’ Was he just this ? Burne-Jones said of himself – ‘I want big things to do and large spaces in which to do them and for people to say on seeing them – Oh and only Oh ‘

Alan’s final  question – ‘was he the beginning of surrealism as his work was all about imagination and dreams and the subconscious? certainly gave us food for thought.Was he not the last of the pre-Raphaelites but the first artist of the 20th.century. With all his passion he was surely a modern of the moderns.  Alan had certainly given us plenty of evidence to support this view.


Dazzle – Disguise and Disruption in War and Art –  a  lecture by Dr. James Taylor

Dr. James Taylor gave an intriguing and entertaining lecture on the art form  that was  Dazzle.

To many of us it was an art form that we had not really heard of before and it opened our eyes to the whole concept.

James began by introducing us to Norman Wilkinson who was the inventor of Dazzle camouflage. As we saw the first illustration our immediate reaction was to question whether this was indeed camouflage. It certainly wasn’t camouflage as we traditionally knew it but it was camouflage by confusion.They were wild, wacky constructional designs which broke up the line of the vessel.

Everywoman by Cara Phillips  is the best example of this.

The painting challenges the outline and form and it was crucial when the enemy were trying to fire at the vessels.

HMS Kildangan 

A lot of the early photographs were in black and white so it was difficult to get the real image.

Wilkinson  did phenomenal work in terms of camouflage in WWI and WWII. He was originally a poster artist 

Wilkinson asserted that ‘art was a crucial part of advertising to interest and educate the public and relieve the tedium of what is still probably one of life’s most depressing experiences – the railway waiting room !!’

By 1917 U boats had been responsible for the sinking of more than 500 merchant ships and Britain was on its knees. and Wilkinson began to think about what could be done.

Wilkinson saw the ships crossing the seas  as ‘a flock of sea-going Easter eggs’ such was their vulnerability. He went to the  Admiralty  with his ‘cunning plan.’  The Admiralty asked him to prove his idea so he set about doing just that. A large team was set up with women drawn from  art colleges and men making the models.The Royal Academy provided the accommodation.The plan was to paint not just small ships but big liners as well.

George Vth visited the exhibition and was very impressed with how the dazzle painting created confusion.

‘Dazzled Merchantman in New Orleans ‘ emphasises that it was not camouflage as we know it but confusion. It made the ships appear as two ships or made them appear to be going in different directions. It inspired hundreds of ships around the world to be ‘Dazzled’

Julius Olsson joined the Dazzle team in 1917 Moonlit Shore’ is very typical of his work. 

‘Approach to the New World’ can be seen on the walls of paintings of the Titanic.

Olsson went to the Dardenelles and made paintings of the action. He too realised how vulnerable our boats were.

‘The Commander’ shows an actual Uboat commander on the Bergen in 1918.

By 1918 there was quite a lot of criticism about Wilkinson’s scheme so it was mainly used on merchant vessels.

James told us how the Germans were able to develop a way to filter out the beiges and greys painted on the vessels so most of the painting after this was mainly in black, white and blue as these colours could not be filtered out.

About 18 officer artists joined the team and  amongst them was Moser .

James showed us an amusing (whilst nonetheless serious)  image of animals being ‘dazzled’ as many of them – particularly cattle were killed in the blackout.  


James concluded his lecture with the rather disappointing fact that there was no evidence that Dazzling actually worked but it most definitely raised morale. However  the Americans reported that the scheme was a great success and did  confuse the enemy and thus saved many lives. There is now current research in Britain to check on the impact of Dazzling in both World Wars.

Many of us left the lecture much more informed, entertained and definitely dazzled.

Celebrating the 250th Anniversary of the Royal Academy of Arts.

Celebrating the 250th Anniversary of the Royal Academy of Arts –

a talk by Pamela Campbell-Johnson

Pamela led us on a fascinating and informative walk through the history of the Royal Academy.

The Royal Academy was founded by James lll  in December 1768 by an act of parliament and to this day it remains true to its origin and purpose  i.e. to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate.

Many know it from its Summer Exhibition, but it is much more than that. It is unique and Britain’s oldest gallery and the only one that is privately funded.

Its original home was in Pall Mall and then in 1771 it moved to temporary accommodation in Old Somerset House. In 1780 it was installed in purpose built apartments in the new Somerset House. This painting by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin (1800) shows the Exhibition Room at Somerset House and how important the position of the paintings was – above or below the line  and there were many debates about the density of the hangings.Many of the people attended the exhibition to be seen rather than to view the paintings. The exhibition was very important to artists as this was the way most of them sold their work. Another aim was to show paintings of young ladies about to be introduced to society.

In 1837 it was moved to the National Gallery but after just a few years the space proved to be too small for two institutions so in 1868 it made the move to its current home in Burlington House in Piccadilly.

There were 40 founding artists and over the years the number of Academicians  has increased until in 1991 it was set at 80 and Associated Academicians were abolished. Academicians must be professionals and active in the U.K. Amongst this 80 there must always be 14 sculptors, 12 architects, and 8 printmakers with the remaining places being filled by  painters. They are voted and elected by their peers. Once they reach the age of 75 they move to become ‘Senior Academicians’ who can still display their work but are no longer involved in the day to day running and leave their place to younger artists.

The sculpture of Joshua Reynolds  is in the courtyard of the Royal Academy in honour of his role in establishing the Royal Academy.

The summer exhibition has many traditions including the consuming of beef tea and the parade behind a steel band to the church. For 150 years the only exhibition open to the general public was the summer exhibition

Artists submit their work for the summer exhibition and the hanging committee look at all of them and decide which should be hung and where. Once the sanctioning day has happened nothing more can be changed or moved.

This photograph shows the 1914 Hanging committee

Academicians can show up to 6 of their paintings at the Summer Exhibition and their paintings do not need to be approved by the ‘Hanging Committee’. Artists can submit up to 3 pieces of work. Last year 13000 entered but only 1200 were chosen.

In 1870 a Winter Exhibition was set up celebrating the work of the Old Masters. In 1931 they started to embrace European Art and Cultural Exhibitions. These have included Exhibitions of Chinese Art in 2002, Living Bridges in1996 and one of the most beautiful in 1991 – ‘Icons of Russia’

Some exhibitions attract large numbers. In 1991 the Monet exhibition had more than 807,000 visitors.

In 1997 an exhibition entitled ‘Sensation’  displayed the work of 42 young British Artists – put together by Saatchi. This exhibition showed that the Royal Academy can display cutting edge art as well as the more traditional.

The Royal Academy also held the first 24 hour exhibition as a way of coping with the large numbers of people who wish to visit the galleries. This can not happen all the time as paintings need times ‘to be put to sleep’

In 2015 the steps of the R.A were painted as part of the Summer Exhibition

One of the most prized possessions is Michael Angelo’s Taddei Tondo which was bequeathed to the Academy by Sir George Beaumont. It was carved in Florence in 1504 and is the only marble by Michael Angelo in the U.K. and shows the Virgin Mary and Child with the Infant John the Baptist 

Galleries also borrow and lend between themselves. Temporary loan exchanges may last months or even longer. No money changes hands apart from the costs of installations. The Royal Gallery also lend from their permanent collections as every Academician must leave a painting. For example Constable left his painting ‘Leaping Horse’

Sir Joshua Reynolds set up the first  training for artists at the Royal Academy  which still flourishes today offering three year graduate courses. In 1769 seventy seven  students enrolled and there was an average intake of 75 students a year.  These included Blake, Constable and Turner.

It was 1860 before women came to the school but two women were amongst the 40 founding artists but it was to be another 154 years before a woman became an Associate Royal Academician.

Sir Hugh Casson was a much loved director who bridged the gap in the 1970s between Modern art and the traditionalists.

Pamela concluded by telling us about the current plans for development. They will be building a link bridge to the schools and the Burlington gardens and new galleries. It will be the largest development since the Royal Academy moved to Burlington House.

The Royal Academy is aware that it needs to constantly rethink and remain relevant ‘ a reflection of who we are, where we came from and where we are going to go’

An interesting insight into the Royal Academy.

As Good As Gold

As Good As Gold  – a lecture by Alexandra Epps

This lecture was planned to be part of our celebration of the Golden Anniversary of the Society. Alexandra began by saying how gold shimmers and reflects light and stirs our emotions, how we have a timeless fascination for all things golden and how it appears eternal. She then began to take us on a  very interesting and informative journey through ‘gold’ in art.

Alexandra began with images of Ancient Egypt. Moving onto early Christianity she explained how gold was used to represent the  ‘immaterial’ as opposed to the  material. In Basilica San Vitali one of the masterpieces of the Byzantine we saw how  golden tessare are used and set at an angle to catch and reflect the flicker of candlelight and bring the whole interior alive almost as a glimpse of heaven.

The Arena Chapel by Giotto (1305) shows golden halos and the introduction of blue allows us to enter into the space of the  painting and portrays more feeling and emotion. At this point in history blue is a more expensive pigment than gold and used to represent heaven. This is why we always see mary clothed in blue as the Queen of Heaven,

Looking at theThe Wilton Diptych (c1395)  in the National Gallery which was created as a portable altarpiece for Richard II  is like looking into a jewelled casket. It is a complicated mixture of  the secular and religious symbolism. It shows Jesus giving the banner to King Richard thereby re enforcing the divine right of kings.

The San Pier Maggiore altarpiece  by Jocopo di Cione (1370) and workshop also in the National Gallery is the other end of the scale at originally 5metres in height. The middle tier representing  ‘The Coronation of the Virgin’ showed many of the intricate gilding methods of the time.

Fra Angelica’s ‘Annunciation’ altarpiece shows both interior and exterior with both Gabriel, Mary and the Garden of Eden. This  is when Gothic meets the new language of the Renaissance. The golden burst in the corner shows the hands of God and contains a dove as the representation of the Holy Spirit. A work of great devotional beauty.

The Book of Hours of Louis XII (1498) which would have been a a medieval best seller was an illustration of how finely gold details would have been used in manuscripts.

Madonna of the Magnificat by Botticelli (1481) celebrates the writing of the Magnificat . In this circular painting covered in fine gold we see a golden crown lowered onto Mary’s head, rays of gold coming down from the crown and golden tones on the face. It was probably a commission as there is so much gold.

Also by Botticelli -‘The Birth of Venus we see again the entire canvas covered in fine golden highlights -so much gold – in the hair, in the eyes, in the flowers, the shell  and in every detail. It is a symbol for the  Renaissance itself as the  rebirth.

 Titian’s painting of ‘Danae Receiving the Golden Rain’ (1650) shows darkness all around the cloud but Danae is suffused by gold as she is showered in the golden rain of Zeus

Gold also is shown as greed as in Matsy’s painting of the ‘Moneylender and His Wife’ where the wife is clearly more interested in the gold her husband is counting than the scripture she is reading ! As in many Dutch paintings there are several hidden messages.

This connection between money and power is shown again in Vadim Zhakarov’s contemporary installation  ‘Danae ‘

Klimt’s painting of ‘Danae’ shows again the great power of gold. In the most famous painting of his golden phase Klimt’s ‘The Kiss’  is so very golden. They almost make one shape and within their own halo. The shapes on the male side are hard whilst those on the female side are round and soft.In this painting Alexandra pointed out that Klimt has used at least 8 different types of gold.

In Judith Holofernes Klimt shows women being taken over by ornament. This was Klimt’s first painting in his golden phase and the model   Adele Bloch-Bauer who also appears in his famous painting Adele Bloch Bauer – this was coined the Woman in Gold and is all about the shimmering properties  of  pattern and wealth.

Japanese art was a great influence on the work of Klimt as well as on the artist Whistler and we saw how he created the Peacock Room to the designs he wanted in the home of Frederick Leyland and how he interpreted gold in his own atmospheric landscapes.

The importance of gold representing the  power of royalty is best seen on the coronation portrait of Elizabeth I where everything is totally gold – the dress, the crown, the shoes etc. Again in  ‘Queen Victoria Receiving the Sacrament at her Coronation’ seen wearing the golden Imperial mantle and bathed in a shaft of golden light.

At the end of last century (1982) Roni Horn created ‘Gold Field’ more interested in the the physicality of gold she created a golden mat ‘a volumeless sculpture’ that inspired another artist – Felix Gonzalez Torres to create his own gold field out of 1000s of golden sweets representing ideas of life,love and transience. The audience is invited to take the sweets so they become part of the work.

Alexandra concluded with paintings of the gold of nature – Houses of Parliament ‘ by Monet Autumn Gold by John Atkinson, and finally the huge installation by Olafur Eliasson -‘ The Weather Project’ where he created the sun and sky inside the Turbine Hall at  Tate Modern which made viewers relate back to the awe of the ancients when seeing the sun rise and set.